Space Technology : Launch Vehicals

 

Launch Vehicals

The Indian space programme began in the 1960s with the launch of modest Rohni Sounding rockets for scientific investigations over the geo-magnetic equator passing over Thumba near Thiruvanthapuram. Since then, India has achieved self-reliance in Satellite Launch vehicle programme with the operationalisation of polar Satellite Launch Vehicles (PSLV) for launching satellites in polar orbits and Geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) for launching satellites in Geosynchronous transfer orbits. The four stage PSLV is capable of launching upto 1,600 kg satellites into an 800 km polar orbit. It can also launch one tonne class pay load into Geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO). In January, 2008 PSLV-C10 was launched which is major success for Indian space programme. GSLV was successful on its very test flight. After its successful second flight on 8 May, 2003, it was commissioned. GSLV is capable of launching 2,000-2,500 kg class satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The indigenous cryogenic engine to be used in the third stage of GLSV has been successfully tested. GSLV-MK III, a new version of GSLV and capable of launching spacecraft weighing upto 4 tonnes to GTO is under development.

IRS System: The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system has the world’s largest constellation of remote sensing satellites in operation today. There are 10 remote Sensing Satellites in operation – OCEANSAT-2, RESAT-2, CARTOSAT-2A, IMS-1, CARTOSAT-2, CARTOSAT-1, RESOURCESAT-1, OCEANSAT-1, IRS- 1D and technology experiment satellite (TES). They are placed in polar Sun- Synchrnous orbits providing data in variety of spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions, meeting the needs of many applications.

INSAT System: The Indian National satellite Unite (INSAT) system is one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the ASIA – Pacific region. In the 1980’s, it iniated a major revolution in India’s Communication sector. Being a multipurpose satellite system, it provides services to telecommunications, television broadcasting, weather forecasting, disaster warning and search and rescue. Presently, eleven Satellites are in operation INSAT-4CB, INSAT-4B, INSAT-4A, EDUSAT-5, INSAT-3E, GSAT-2, INSAT-3A, KALPANA-1, INSAT- 3C, INSAT-3B and INSAT-2E.

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