General Studies : Constitutional Design
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Constitutional design in India refers to the principles, provisions, and mechanisms established by the Indian Constitution to ensure the functioning of the Indian democracy. Here are some notes on constitutional design in India:

  1. Federal Structure: The Indian Constitution established a federal structure of government, where power is divided between the central government and the state governments. This ensures that both levels of government have their respective powers and can work independently.
  2. Parliamentary System: India follows the parliamentary system of government, where the executive is responsible to the legislature. The Prime Minister and other Ministers are appointed from the majority party in the parliament.
  3. Fundamental Rights: The Indian Constitution guarantees several fundamental rights to its citizens, such as the right to equality, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion, and the right to life and personal liberty.
  4. Directive Principles of State Policy: The Constitution also lays down a set of guidelines called the Directive Principles of State Policy, which are non-justiciable but are aimed at ensuring social and economic justice, and the welfare of the people.
  5. Independent Judiciary: India has an independent judiciary that is responsible for upholding the Constitution and protecting the rights of citizens. The judiciary has the power of judicial review and can strike down any law that is unconstitutional.
  6. Universal Adult Franchise: The Constitution provides for universal adult franchise, ensuring that every citizen above the age of 18 has the right to vote, irrespective of their caste, creed, religion, or gender.
  7. Election Commission: The Constitution also provides for an independent Election Commission, which is responsible for conducting free and fair elections in the country.
  8. Emergency Provisions: The Constitution also provides for emergency provisions in case of a national emergency, such as war or internal disturbance.
  9. Amendment Procedure: The Constitution provides for a detailed procedure for amending the Constitution, ensuring that any changes made are in line with the basic structure of the Constitution.

These are some of the key features of the constitutional design in India that have helped India become one of the largest democracies in the world.

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