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HISTORY-Indian Space Programme 

The Indian space Programme began in 1962. In 1969 the Indian space Research Organizatiion (ISRO) was set up with headquarters in Banglore for the purpose of rapid development in space technology and its application. In 1972, space commission was established. In 1975, India launchedits first satellite, Aryabhata, and thus entered the space age. Over the last two and half decades, the Indian space programme has made impressive progress through a well integrated, self-reliant programme. Its main objectives are – (i) Mass Communication and education via Satellite; (ii) Survey and management of natural resources through remote sensing technology, environmental monitoring and meteorological forecasting and (iii) Development of indigenous satellites and satellite launch vehicles.


Indian space research organization (ISRO), set up in 1969 at Ahmedabad with Prof. Vikram Sarabhai as chairman is the apex body to provide guidelines, formulate policies and monitor implementation of the national space policy.


 (i) Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC)- VSSC at Thiruvananhapuram is the head center for the development of satellite launch vehicles and associated technology.

(ii) ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC)- ISAC at Banglore is the lead center for developing satellite technology and implementation of satellite system for scientific technological and applications missions.

(iii) Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR- SDSC SHAR is the main launch center of ISRO and has facilities for solid propellant casting, static testing of solid motors, launch vehicles integration and launch operations, range operation comprising telemetry tracking and command network and mission control center.

(iv) Liquid Propulsion System Centre (LPSC) – LPSC is the lead centre in development of liquid and cryogenic propulsion for launch vehicles and satellites.

(v) Space Applications Centre (SAC)- SAC at Ahmedabad is engaged in the development of pay loads for communication, meteorological and remote sensing satellites. 

(vi) Development and Educational Communication- Unit (DECU)- DECU at Ahmedabad is involved in the conception, definition, planning, implementation and socio-economic evaluation of innovative configuration for space applications.

(vii) ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command- Network (ISTRAC)- ISTRAC provides mission support to low-earth orbit satellites as well as launch vehicle missions.

(viii) Master Control Facility- MCF at Hassan in Karnataka and Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh monitors and controls all the geo-stationary satellites of ISRO.

(ix) ISRO inertial system Unit (IISU)- IISU at Thiruvanathpuram carries out resource and development in inertial sensors and systems.

(x) National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) – NRSA at Hyderabad is an autonomous institution under DOS. The agency is responsible for satellite data acquisition and processing data dissemination, aerial remote sensing and decision support for disaster management.

(xi) Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)- PRL at Ahmedabad, is an autonomous institution supported mainly by DOS. It is premier institute for multi-disciplinary research in astronomy and astrophysics, earth sciences, planetary sciences, space sciences and basic science.

(xii) National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL)- NARL at Gadanki near Tirupati is an autonomous society supported by DOS. It is a premier centre for atmospheric research facilities like Mesosphere, Stratospheretroposphere radar, LIDAR etc.

 (xiii) Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres – (PRSSC) – Five PRSSCs have been established by the DOS at Banglore, Jodhpur, Kharagpur, Dehradun and Nagpur. PRSSCs support the various remote sensing tasks specific to their regions as well as at the national level.

 (xiv) North Eastern – Space Application Centre (NE SAC)- NE-SAC, located at Shillong, is a joint initiatives of DOS and North Eastern Council to provide development support to the North Eastern region using space science and technology.

(xv) Antrix Corporation Limited – The Antrix Corporation Limited, Banglore is the apex marketing agency under DOS with access to resources of DOS as well as Indian space industries.

(xvi) Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL)- SCL is entrusted with design and development of very large scale integration ( VLSI) devices and development of systems for telecommunications and space sectors.


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