India & the World : A Common Knowledge For Special Mission….

 

India & the World

Analysis:·International Organizations & International Affairs

 India’s Foreign Policy- 

  1.  Role of Intelligence in the making of foreign policy (15 M)
  2.  Relevance of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru’s Ideas in the International Relations of today (15 Marks)
  3.  How can India accommodate her foreign policy principle of non intervention with the emerging right to intervention? (15 Marks).
  4.  NAM (2M)
  5.  Panchsheel (2M – 2007)
  6.  Panchsheel Pact (2004)
  7.  Nature of Track II diplomacy between India & Pakistan (2M)
  8.  Gujral Doctrine
  9.  NAM is relevant in Unipolar world as well. Comment.

· International Affairs/Places in News

  1.  Operation Silence (2M)
  2.  Hyde Act of 2006 (2M)
  3.  Trade through Nathu La Pass (2M)
  4.  Outer Space Treaty (2M)
  5.  Withdrawal of Japanese Troops from Iraq (2M)
  6.  Maastricht Treaty (2M)
  7.  Cuba & Castro
  8.  Beijing Taiwan Spat
  9.  Al Gharib Prisoners (2M)
  10.  ICJ Verdict on Israel’s erection of barrier on West Bank
  11.  Chechnya
  12.  Singificance of Robin Island
  13.  Guantanamo Bay
  14.  Significance of Enola Gay
  15.  Why was Bandar Seri Begawan in News recently
  16.  Why was Macau in news recently
  17.  What do you know about Siachen Dispute?

· India & its relationship with other countries (esp Neighbouring countries & major world powers)

/Developments in Neighbouring coutries

  1.  India’s response to political crisis in Bangladesh (15 M)
  2.  Crippling the king in Nepal (15 Marks)
  3. Terrorism – Sources in Pakistan & Afghanistan (15 Marks)
  4.  Developments in Afghanistan in Post Taliban Period (15 M)
  5.  Military Rule in Myanmar (2 Marks)
  6.  India’s strategic relationship with Russia (15 M)
  7.  UN & its role in hindering/promoting relationship between India & Pakistan (15 M)
  8.  Indo-Israel Cooperation (2M).
  9.  Indo-Israel cooperation in the field of Agriculture (2 Marks).
  10.  Recent trends in India’s relation with China (15 M).
  11.  Indo-US relations in Recent times (15 Marks)
  12.  Indo-Srilankan relations in recent years (15 Marks)
  13.  Recent Developments in India-Myanmar Relations (2 Marks)

· India’s & Global Nuclear Policies/Pacts & Defense cooperation & Energy Agreements

  1.  US Policy on Iran’s Nuclear Program (15 Marks)
  2.  Indo-US Military Cooperation (2 Marks)
  3.  Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (2 Marks)
  4.  India’s Nuclear Doctrine (15 Marks)
  5.  Indo-Russian Defense Cooperation (15 Marks)
  6.  Indo-Iran Gas Pipeline (15 Marks)
  7.  India’s Opposition to CTBT (15 Marks)
  8.  Necessity of indigenous cryogenic engine for India (2M)
  9.  What is deterrence? (2M)
  10.  Pinaka (2 Marks)
  11.  What is Banana war
  12.  What is a rogue state?
  13.  Detail the salient features of “Project Anthareeksha” (15 Marks)
  14.  Will the grand axis of India, China & Russia challenge the Unipolar supremacy of the US?
  15.  What do you mean by Unipolar World? (2M)
  16.  Highlight the main provisions of Nuclear Disarmament Treaty between US & Russia (15 M)
  17.  Outline the features of Saudi Peace Plan for West Asia Crises & access its importance.
  18.  Outine salient features of India’s Nuclear policy & explain reasons for India’s refusal to sign the
  19. CTBT (15 Marks)
  20.  What are the prospects of CTBT. (2M)
  21.  Differentiate between collective security & cooperative security.
  22.  What do the following stand for? MARV, MIRV & ICBM
  23.  Differentiate between Explosion & Implosion.
  24.  What is meant by SDI? (Strategic Defense Initiative).
  25.  Differentiate between SALT & START? (Strategic Arm Limitations Talk) (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)

· United Nations

  1.  Which is the latest right confirmed by the 57 th session of the UN? (2M)
  2.  Explain the position of US vis a vis the League of Nations.

· Globalization/Environment & Economics

  1.  Define globalization & differentiate it with internationalism (15 marks)
  2.  Impact of Globalization on State system & its institutions (15 Marks)
  3.  Global Governance (2M)
  4. Concept of copyleft? (2M)
  5.  Repo Market (2M).
  6.  China-US Textile War
  7.  North South Dialogue
  8.  Discuss significance of Kyoto Protocol. Why is USA not signing it? (15 Marks).
  9. There is a widespread concern about degradation of environment & the problems that go with it. Asses the International Response.
  10. What is Global Environment Facility (GEF)?

· International Organizations/Summits/Reports

  1.  G-8 Summit (2M)
  2.  G-8 Summit in Russia (15 Marks)
  3.  SAARC Human Rights Report 2006 (2M)
  4.  Gender Empowerment Measure (2M)
  5.  SAARC Summit 2007 (15 Marks)
  6.  Evaluate the performance of Summit Meeting of the Arab League held in March 2001. (15 Marks)
  7.  UN Conference of Environment & Development (The Earth Summit).
  8.  Expanding role of Amnesty International (15 Marks)
  9.  Role of Amnesty International in Securing Human Rights (15 Marks)
  10.  Role of European Parliament (15 Marks)

· International Trade Blocs

  1.  SAFTA (2M) BIMSTEC What is GCC OIC
  2.  EAS (2M) ARF What is EU
  3.  SCO (2M) Main purpose of G-15 What is G-8
  4.  G-15 (2M) Why is SAFTA being Mooted SAARC
  5.  OPEC What is meant by AU? ASEAN

· Persons in News

  1.  Who is Hans Blix? (Headed Commission on WMD in Iraq)
  2.  Why was David Kelly in the news recently? (Weapons Inspector in Iraq)
  3.  Why was Robert Mugabe in News Recently?
  4.  Who is Xanana Gusmao.
  5.  Why was Slobadan Milosevic been in news in the recent past.
  6.  Who is Gao Jhan?
  7.  Who is Meghavati Sukarnoputri?

· Abbreviations in News/Abbreviations of International Organizations)

  1.  ICT4D (2M) OAPEC SPDC
  2.  BEMs (2M) UPU WIPO
  3.  IAEA (2M) ODA WCAR
  4.  IFAD Red Cross UNIDO
  5.  ECJ (2M) SAVE WTO
  6.  ICJ (2M) IAEA (Repeat) MIGA
  7.  WHO IBRD (Repeat) UNCIP
  8.  WMO UNHCR KLA
  9.  IBRD UNHCR (Repeat)
  10.  INTELSAT INTERPOL

Important Trade Blocs

SAFTA (UPSC 2007)

The Agreement on the South Asian Free Trade Area is an agreement reached at the 12th South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summit at Islamabad, capital of Pakistan on 6 January 2004. It creates a framework for the creation of a free trade zone covering 1.4 billion people in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and the Maldives. Aghanistan is the latest member.

ASEAN geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia,

which was formed in 1967 by Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines (ST-IMP). Other five members are Brunei, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam & Cambodia

ASEAN Plus 3 ASEAN plus China, Japan & South Korea.

East Asia Summit (UPSC 2007)

The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asia forum held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with ASEAN in a leadership position. The members of EAS are 10 members of ASEAN plus China, Japan, South Korea, India, New Zealand & Australia.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (UPSC 2007)

SCO was formed in 2001. Its 6 members are China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Observers are India, Pakistan, Mongolia & Iran. Headquartered at Beijing.

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries

established in 1989 to discuss the regional economy, cooperation, trade and investment. Important members include USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, China & Russia.

MERCOSUR Founded in 1991, Mercosur is a regional trade agreement among Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay & Argentina. Venezuela has recently applied to become full member but

the decision is yet to be ratified. Headquarter is in Montevideo, Uruguay.

Andean Community

The Andean Community is a trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Headquarter is in Lima, Peru.

CARICOM Stands for Caribbean Community. It currently has 15 members. Important members include Guyana, Suriname, Belize, Jamaica & Haiti. Headquarter is in Georgetown, Guyana.

NAFTA North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement. Comprises of 3 members of Canada, USA & Mexico. It was formed in 1994 & the headquarters are located in Mexico City, Ottawa and Washington, D.C. It is the largest trade bloc in the world in terms of combined purchasing power parity GDP of its members.

African Union Established in 2002, African Union is an intergovernmental organization consisting of 53 African nations. Morocco is the only country which is not a member of AU.Headquarter is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

GUAM GUAM is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova. Given the existence of the Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States, in Russia GUAM is sometimes seen as a way of countering the Russian influence in the area, and as part of a strategy backed by the United States.However, GUAM leaders repeatedly and officially dismiss such claims and declare their strong willingness to develop close friendly relations with Russia. Moreover, Azerbaijan, the group’s main energy power, has managed to avoid any controversies with Russia in recent years.

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic community of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Europe. It was established in 1993 by the Maastricht Treaty, adding new areas of policy to the existing European Community.

The Treaty of Lisbon, signed in December 2007 and intended to be ratified by the end of 2008, is planned to amend the existing treaties to update the political and legal structure of the union.

EFTA The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a European trade bloc which was established in 1960 as an alternative for European states who were either unable to, or chose not to, join the then-European Economic Community (now the European Union). Today only Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein remain members of EFTA.

CEFTA The Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is a trade agreement between Non-EU countries in Central and South-Eastern Europe.

GCC GCC is a trade bloc involving the six Arab states of the Persian Gulf – viz Saudi Arabia, Oman,UAE, Qatar, Bahrain & Kuwait. A GCC common market was launched on January 1, 2008. Headquarter is in Riyadh.  OIC OIC is an international organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. It groups 57 Islamic nations & is headquartered at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

League of Arab States Currently has 22 members. Headquarted in Cairo.

The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials. It was founded in 1975 in response to the Indian nuclear test of the previous year & currently has 45 members.

IOR-ARC The Indian Ocean Rim-Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), initially known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative, is an international organization with 18 member states for regional cooperation. Headquartered in Mauritius.

IBSA Trilateral forum of India, Brazil & South Africa.

BIMSTEC Founded in 1997, the Bay of Bengal Initiative for MultiSectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia. The member nations of this group are: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal.

OECD The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and free market economy. It was formed in 1948. Currently there are 30 full members prominent among them being USA, Canada, U.K, Germany, Japan & Australia.

Mekong Ganga Cooperation

Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC) was established in 2000 at Vientiane . It comprises of six Member countries namely India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia,Laos, & Vietnam. The emphasis are on four areas of cooperation, which are tourism, culture, education, and transportation linkage in order to be solid foundation for future trade and investment cooperation in the region.

Developing 8: The Developing 8 (D-8 or Developing Eight) are a group of developing countries that have formed an economic development alliance. It consists of Pakistan,Bangladesh, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, Malaysia, Iran and Turkey.

G-8 :The Group of Eight (G8), also known as Group of Seven and Russia,is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Together, these countries represent about 65% of the Gross World Product

G8 Plus 5: The G8 plus the heads of government of the 5 leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa).

G-15: The Group of 15 (G-15) was established at the Ninth Non-Aligned Movement Summit Meeting in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. The G15 focuses on cooperation among developing countries in the areas of investment, trade, and technology. The membership of the G15 has expanded to 18 countries, but the name has remained unchanged. India is a member of G-15.

G-77 :The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members’ collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but the organization has since expanded to 130 member countries.

India’s Foreign Policy & Global Factors Panchsheel (UPSC 2007)

The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence or Panchsheel are a series of agreements between the People’s Republic of China and India. After the Central Chinese Government took control of Tibet, China came into increasing conflict with India. However, both nations were newly-established and interested in finding ways to avoid further conflict. Therefore in 1954 the two nations drew up the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence:

1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty

2. Mutual non-aggression

3. Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs

4. Equality and mutual benefit

5. Peaceful co-existence

NAM & Its Releveance (UPSC 2007)

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an international organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.It was founded in April 1955; as of 2007, it has 118 members. The Non-Aligned Movement has struggled to find relevance since the end of the Cold War. However the movement continues to see a role for itself, as in its view, the world’s poorest nations remain exploited and marginalized, no longer by opposing superpowers, but rather in a uni-polar world, and it is Western hegemony and neo-colonialism that that the movement has really re-aligned itself against. It opposes foreign occupation, interference in internal affairs, and aggressive unilateral measures, but it has also shifted to focus on the socio-economic challenges facing member states, especially the inequalities manifested by globalization and the implications of neo-liberal policies. The non-aligned movement has identified economic underdevelopment, poverty, and social injustices as growing threats to peace and security

Gujral Doctrine :The Gujral Doctrine is a set of five principles to guide the conduct of foreign

relations with India’s immediate neighbours as spelt out by Gujral, first as India’s foreign minister and later as the prime minister. Among other factors, these five principles arise from the belief that India’s stature and strength cannot be divorced from the quality of its relations with its neighbours. It, thus, recognises the supreme importance of friendly, cordial relations with neighbours. These principles are:

1. With neighbours like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka,India does not ask for reciprocity, but gives and accommodates what it can in good faith and trust.

2. No South Asian country should allow its territory to be used against the interest of another country of the region.

3. No country should interfere in the internal affairs of another.

4. All South Asian countries must respect each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.

 5. They should settle all their disputes through peaceful bilateral negotiations.According to Gujral, these five principles, scrupulously adhered to, would achieve a fundamental recasting of South Asia’s regional relationships, including the difficult relationship between India and Pakistan. Further, the implementation of these principles would generate a climate of close and mutually benign cooperation in the region, where the weight and size of India is regarded positively and as an asset by these countries.

NATO NATO is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949. Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, the organization constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks NATO has attempted to refocus itself to new challenges and has deployed troops to Afghanistan and trainers to Iraq.

CFE :The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. The treaty proposed equal limits for the two “groups of states-parties”, NATO and the Warsaw Pact.

South South Cooperation

The South-South Cooperation is a broad framework for collaboration among countries of the South, in the political, economic, social, environmental and technical domains. Involving three or more developing countries, South-South cooperation takes place on bilateral, regional, sub-regional and inter-regional bases. IBSA (India Brazil South Africa) forum is an example of this kind of cooperation.

Look East Policy: Look-east policy was launched in 1992 just after the end of the cold war, following the collapse of the Soviet Union. After the start of liberalization, it was a very strategic policy decision taken by the government in the foreign policy. To quote Prime Minister Manmohan Singh “it was also a strategic shift in India’s vision of the world and India’s place in the evolving global economy”.

The policy was given an initial thrust with the then Prime Minister Narasimha Rao visiting China, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam and Singapore and India becoming a important dialogue partner with ASEAN in 1992. Since the beginning of this century, India has given a big push to this policy by becoming a summit level partner of ASEAN (2002) and getting involved in some regional initiatives such as the BIMSTEC and the Ganga Mekong Cooperation and now becoming a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS) in December, 2005.

Advantages:

The Look-East policy has been given a significant thrust since the beginning of this century and the results achieved are evident as mentioned in the report. Now India has entered into the phase two of this policy. The second phase in India’s Look East policy has a new dimension — the development of India’s remote northeast. India’s search for a new economic relationship with South East Asia is no longer driven by considerations of globalization, but to facilitate development of the Northeast by increasing its connectivity to the outside world. Instead of trying to isolate the Northeast from external influences, as it had done in the past, New Delhi is now recognizing the importance of opening it up for commercial linkages with South East Asia.

Shortcomings:

The Look East policy did not find Japan on its radar and failed to improve India’s economic ties with it. Trade with Japan actually declined dramatically dropping its share to one-third of its level of 7 per cent in 1993.India has entered into a number of pacts, agreements and FTAs but its record for implementation of such accords has been poor as can be seen from the follow up of the Indo-Thai FTA and CECA with Singapore.

The reason for poor implementation of the pacts, agreements and FTAs

* The Indian industry’s doubts about its competitive efficiency.

* Indian industry does not want competition at home

* Indian industry scared of cheaper exports to India from these countries.India should go ahead with proper implementation of the pacts, agreements and FTAs without bothering about the aforementioned factors. The Indian industry will ensure that India will always gain from these arrangements.

Shimla Agreement (UPSC2006 – 2M)

Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in1972. The agreement followed from the war between the two nations in the previous year that had led to the independence of East Pakistan as Bangladesh. The agreement laid down the principles that should govern their future relations. It also conceived steps to be taken for further normalization of mutual relations. Most importantly, it bound the two countries “to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations”.

Tashkent Declaration

The Tashkent Declaration of 1966 was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan after the Indo-Pak war of 1965. The agreement was signed between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub Khan.

Terms Track I Diplomacy

Involves direct government-to-government interaction on the official level. Typical Track I activities include traditional diplomacy, official negotiations, and the use of international organizations. The participants stand as representatives of their respective states and reflect the official positions of their governments during discussions. It is also called “Fast Track” diplomacy.

Track “One & Half” Diplomacy

Refers to situations when official representatives give authority to non-state actors (or official actors serving in an unofficial capacity) to participate, negotiate or facilitate on behalf of the official state actors. It also refers to non-state individuals who serve as intermediaries between official and non-official actors in difficult conflict situations. It is generally used to prepare key stakeholders before and during the official negotiation process by building consensus and support for agreements, both between parties in conflict and within their prospective constituencies.

Track II Diplomacy

Generally involves informal interaction with influential unofficial actors from civil society, business or religious communities, and local leaders and politicians who are considered to be experts in the area or issue being discussed. It generally seeks to supplement Track I diplomacy by working with middle and lower levels of society and often involves non-traditional methods, such as facilitating dialogue mechanisms and meetings that include participants from both government and non-government institutions.

Track III Diplomacy

Is essentially “people to people” diplomacy undertaken by both individuals and private groups from non-government international organizations that are dedicated to promoting specific causes, universal ideals and norms, and enacting systematic social change. This type of diplomacy often involves organizing meetings and conferences, generating media exposure, and political and legal advocacy for people and communities who are largely marginalized from political power centers and are unable to achieve positive change without outside assistance.

Track IV Diplomacy

Involves socio-cultural, educational, environmental & scientific exchange between two states. It helps in developing closer ties among states.

Track V Diplomacy

Effort of media of concerned states towards conflict resolution & development of better understanding of each others viewpoint.

Pugwash Conferences

Series of international meetings of scientists to discuss problems of nuclear weapons and world security. The first of the conferences met in July 1957 in the village of Pugwash, Nova Scotia. In 1995 the Nobel Prize for Peace was awarded jointly to the Pugwash organization and to Joseph Rotblat—Pugwash founding member, secretary- general (1957–73), and president (1988–97).

India’s Border Dispute

India is involved in the following international disputes:

Bangladesh

6.5 km of the border between India and Bangladesh remains to be demarcated. Dispute with Bangladesh over South Talpatti Island / New Moore in the Bay of Bengal.Ongoing discussions with Bangladesh to exchange 162 minuscule enclaves between the two.

Nepal

Kalapani village (Indo-Nepal Border) of India is claimed by Nepal and Nawalparasi district of Nepal is claimed by India.

Maldives

Dispute over Minicoy Island with Maldives.

Pakistan

The unresolved Kashmir dispute, involving Siachen Glacier and other areas with Pakistan. Dispute over Sir Creek and the maritime boundary between the two.

People’s Republic of China

India claims Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. China claims Arunachal Pradesh, a state in north-east India. Abbreviations of International Organizations/Abbr in News (Question 9 – 2 Marker) ICT4D (UPSC – 2007)

Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) is an increasingly popular, general term referring to the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) within the field of socio-economic development. It is being implemented in many countries.

IAEA (UPSC – 2007)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. Though established independently of the United Nations under its own international treaty (the IAEA Statute), the IAEA reports to both the General Assembly and the Security Council. Headquarted in Vienna, Austria.

BIMSTEC (UPSC – 2007)

Founded in 1997, the Bay of Bengal Initiative for MultiSectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia. The member nations of this group are: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal.

ECJ (UPSC -2007)

European Court of Justice is the highest court in the European Union (EU). It has the ultimate say on matters of EU law in order to ensure equal application across the various European Union member states.

BEMs (UPSC – 2007)

Big Emerging Markets. These “Big Emerging Markets” (BEMs) are: Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, the Chinese Economic Area(2), India, Indonesia, South Korea, Poland, Turkey, and South Africa.

MTCR Missile Technology Control Regime

ECOSOC Economic and Social Council

EFTA European Free Trade Association

INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization

ISO International Organization for Standardization

WFC World Food Council

OAPEC (UPSC) Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries.

KLA (UPSC) Kosovo Liberation Army

UNCIP (UPSC) United Nations Commission for India & Pakistan

ODA (UPSC) Official Development Assistance. The term applies to aid from the members of Development Assistance Committee of the OECD to developing countries.

CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research. Located near Geneva.

ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross. Headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.

LORCS League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

OIC Organization of Islamic Conferences

SACU Southern African Customs Union

Important United Nations Organizations

1. United Nations Organization New York

2. Economic Commission of Europe Geneva

3. Economic & Social Commission of Asia Bangkok

4. Economic Commission of Latin America Santiago, Chile

5. Economic Commission for Africa Addis Ababa

6. Economic Commission for Western Asia Baghdad, Iraq

7. UNESCO Paris

8. Universal Postal Union (UPU) Berne, Switzerland

9. WHO Geneva

10. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Geneva

11. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Geneva

12. World Trade Organization (WTO) Geneva

13. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Geneva

14. International Labour Organization (ILO) Geneva

15. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Vienna

16. Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) Rome

17. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Rome

18. International Maritime Organization (IMO) London

19. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna

20. IBRD or World Bank Washington

21. International Development Association Washington

22. International Finance Corporation (IFC) Washington

23. International Monetary Fund (IMF) Washington

24. International Telecommunication Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) Washington

25. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Montreal, Canada

26. UNICEF New York

27. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Geneva

28. United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD) Geneva

29. United Nations Institute for Training & Research (UNITAR) New York

30. United Nations Relief & Work for Palestine Refugees in the Near East Gaza City & Amman

31. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) New York

32. United Nations Postal Administration (UNPA) New York

33. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) New York

34. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Nairobi

35. International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) New York

36. Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons The Hague

37. United Nations Drugs Control Program (UNDCP) Vienna

38. United Nations Interregional Crime & Justice Research Institute Turin, Italy

39. United Nations Fund for International Parterships New York

40. UN-HABITAT ( United Nations Human Settlement Programme) Nairobi

41. United Nations International School (UNIS) New York

42. World Food Programme (WFP) Rome

43. World Tourism Organization (WTO) Madrid, Spain

44. UNFCC – United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Rome

45. United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) Geneva

46. United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) Geneva

47. United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Vienna, Austria

48. United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS – (UNAIDS) Geneva, Switzerland

49. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) -(UNCHS Habitat Nairobi, Kenya

International Organizations

1. Amnesty International London

2. Asian Development Bank Manila

3. Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Jakarta

4. BENELUX Economic Union Brussels

5. Central Treaty Organization (Earlier known as Baghdad Pact) Ankara

6. European Economic Community Brussels

7. European Union Brussels

8. European Free Trade Association Geneva

9. European Space Research Organization Paris

10. International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland

11. International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) Lyons (France)

12. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Brussels

13. North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement Ottawa, Mexico,Washington DC

14. Organization of Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Paris

15. African Union ( 53 member countries) Addis Ababa

16. OPEC Vienna

17. South East Asia Treaty Organization Bangkok

18. G-8 (US, UK, France, Germany, Japan, Canada, Italy & Russia) Not Applicable

19. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Minsk (Belarus)

20. Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical & Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) Bangladesh-India-  Myanmar-Sri Lanka-Thai.

21. SAARC Kathmandu

22. APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Forum) – 21 members Singapore

23. Gulf Cooperation Council Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

24. Organization of Islamic Conferences Jedah, Saudi Arabia

25. League of Arab States Cairo

26. G-77 (Presiding Country – Jamaica 2005 & South Africa – 2006) New York

27. G-24 Washington DC

28. Andean Community Lima, Peru

29. Mercosur (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Venezuela) Montevideo, Uruguay

30. CARICOM (Carribean Community & Common Market) Georgetown, Guyana

31. South African Development Community Gaborone, Botswana

32. Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation Mauritius

33. Shanghai Cooperation Organization Beijing

34. Bank for International Settlements Basel, Switzerland

35. Transparency International Berlin

36. International Rice Research Institute Manila

37. International Cricket Club Dubai

38. Commonwealth Heads of Government Meet (CHOGM) London

39. International Union for Conservation of Nature Switzerland

40. Survival International (reporting un-contacted tribes) London

41. Medicine Sans Frontiers Paris, France

42. Reporters Sans Frontiers France

Various Protocols

Convention Year Objective

Stockholm Convention

1972 Persistent Organic Pollutants

Vienna Convention

1985 Ozone Layer. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is a multilateral environmental agreement. It was agreed upon in Vienna in 1985 and entered into force in 1987. It acts as a framework for the international efforts to protect the ozone layer. However, it does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion. These are laid out in the accompanying Montreal Protocol.

Montreal Protocol 1987 Ozone Depleting Substances.

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature in 1987 and entered into force on January 1, 1989. Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation with Kofi Annan quoted as saying it is “Perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date…”. At present, 191 nations have become party to the Montreal Protocol. Those 5 that are not as of September 2007 are Andorra, Iraq, San Marino, Timor-Leste and Vatican City. Since the Montreal Protocol came into effect, the atmospheric concentrations of the most important chlorofluorocarbons and related chlorinated hydrocarbons have either leveled off or decreased. Halon concentrations have continued to increase, as the halons presently stored in fire extinguishers are released, but their rate of increase has slowed and their abundances are expected to begin to decline by about 2020. Also, the concentration of the HCFCs increased drastically at least partly because for many uses CFCs (e.g. used as solvents or refrigerating agents) were substituted with HCFCs. Unfortunately, the hydrochlorofluorocarbons, or HCFCs, and hydrofluorocarbons, or HFCs, are now thought to contribute to anthropogenic global warming. On a molecule-for-molecule basis, these compounds are up to 10,000 times more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide. The Montreal Protocol currently calls for a complete phase-out of HCFCs by 2030, but does not place any restriction on HFCs. Since the CFCs themselves are equally powerful as greenhouse gases, the mere substitution of HFCs for CFCs does not significantly increase the rate of anthropogenic global warming, but over time a steady increase in their use could increase the danger that human activity will change the climate.

Basel Convention

1989 Trans boundary movement of Hazardous Wastes.

It is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). It does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste. The Convention is also intended to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation, and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate.

Rio Summit Or Earth Summit

1992 The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Rio Summit, Earth Summit was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

The issues addressed included:

· systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals

· alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change

· new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog

· the growing scarcity of water

An important achievement was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol.

The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:

1. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

2. Agenda 21

3. Convention on Biological Diversity

4. Forest Principles

5. Framework Convention on Climate Change

1. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, often shortened to Rio Declaration, was a short document produced at the 1992 United Nations “Conference on Environment and Development” (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit. The Rio Declaration consisted 27 principles intended to guide future sustainable development around the world.

2. Agenda 21 is a programme run by the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development. It is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans impact on the environment. The number 21 refers to the 21st century.

3. The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is an international treaty that was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992.

The Convention has three main goals:

1. conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity);

2. sustainable use of its components; and

3. fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.

4. Forest Principles: It is a non-legally binding document that makes several recommendations for forestry. At the Earth Summit, the negotiation of the document was complicated by demands by developing nations in the Group of 77 for increased foreign aid in order to pay for the setting aside of forest reserves. Developed nations resisted those demands, and the final document was a compromise.

5. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The treaty is aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.The treaty as originally framed set no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual nations and contained no enforcement provisions; it is therefore considered legally non-binding. Rather, the treaty included provisions for updates(called “protocols”) that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol, which has become much better known than the UNFCCC itself.

Kyoto Protocol

1997 The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. It was adopted in 1997 and it entered into force in 2005. As of June 2008, 182 parties have ratified the protocol. One hundred and thirty-seven (137) developing countries have ratified the protocol, including Brazil, China and India, but have no obligation beyond monitoring and reporting emissions. Australia’s new government formed by the Australian Labor Party after the November 2007 election fully supports the protocol and Prime Minister Kevin Rudd signed the instrument of ratification immediately after assuming office on 3 December 2007, just before the meeting of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. USA & Kazakhstan have not ratified this protocol.

The objective is to achieve “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted an average global rise in temperature of 1.4° to 5.8°C between 1990 and 2100.

Governments are separated into two general categories: developed countries, referred to as Annex I countries (who have accepted greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations and must submit an annual greenhouse gas inventory), and developing countries, referred to as Non-Annex I countries (who have no greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations but may participate in the Clean Development Mechanism).

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialised countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment (called Annex 1 countries) to invest in projects that reduce emissions in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. The CDM allows net global greenhouse gas emissions to be reduced at a much lower global cost by financing emissions reduction projects in developing countries where costs are lower than in industrialized countries. However, critics argue that by allowing “business as usual” projects some emission reductions under the CDM are false or exaggerated

Rotterdam Convention

1998 Prior Informed Consent procedure for certain hazardous material Cartagena Protocol 2000 Bio Safety: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety of the Convention, also known as the Bio safety Protocol, was adopted in 2000. The Bio safety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.The Biosafety Protocol makes clear that products from new technologies must be based on the precautionary principle and allow developing nations to balance public health against economic benefits. It will for example let countries ban imports of a genetically modified organism if they feel there is not enough scientific evidence the product is safe and requires exporters to label shipments containing genetically altered commodities such as corn or cotton.

Other Treaties

Nuclear Non- proliferation Treaty

1968 A major step towards non-proliferation of nuclear weapons came with the signing of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1968. Only four nations are not signatories: India, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea. India and Pakistan both possess and have openly tested nuclear bombs. Israel has had a policy of opacity regarding its own nuclear weapons program. North Korea ratified the treaty, violated it, and later withdrew. Under the NPT, non-nuclear weapon states were prohibited from, inter alia, possessing, manufacturing or acquiring nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. All signatories, including nuclear weapon states, were committed to the goal of total nuclear disarmament.Although the concept of “pillars” appears nowhere in the NPT, the treaty is nevertheless sometimes interpreted as having three pillars: non-proliferation, disarmament, and the right to peacefully use nuclear technology. The main reason India cites for not signing the NPT and for possessing nuclear weapons is that China is one of the “nuclear haves. India is one of the few countries to have a no first use policy, a pledge not to use nuclear weapons unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons.

CTBT :1996 The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. The treaty was opened for signature in 1996. India and Pakistan, though not nuclear weapons states as defined by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), did not sign; neither did the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea).

Obligations:

1. Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control.

2. Each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon tests explosion or any other nuclear explosion.

Be Sociable, Share!
 

No comments

Be the first one to leave a comment.

Post a Comment


 

 

 

Locations of Site Visitors

 

Follow Us!

 

My Great Web page