Indian Polity :Nationality


Comptroller And Auditor General: The comptroller and Auditor General is appointed by the president to keep watch on the accounts of the union and the states. He is responsible to see that the expenses voted by the parliament are the legislature of a state and laid down in appropriation acts are not exceeded or varied.

Citizenship: The Constitution of India provides for a single and uniform citizenship for whole of India. Every person who was at the commencement of the Constitution (26 January 1950) domiciled in the territory of India and:

(a) who was born in the territory of India or

(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India or

(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India. The Citizenship Act, 1955 provides for acquisition and termination of citizenship after the commencement of the Constitution.

State Emblem: The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra). In the State emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’, are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.

National Song: The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza :

Vande Mataram!

Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,

Shasyashyamalam, Mataram!

Shubhrajyothsna pulakitayaminim,

Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,

Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,

Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!

National flag : The National flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel which represents the charkha. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The use and display of national flag are regulated by the Indian Flag Code: (i) The dipping of the Flag to any person or thing is prohibited. (ii) No other Flag or Emblem is to be placed above or to the right of the National Flag. If hung in a line, all other flags are to be placed on the left of the National Flag. When flown or raised with other flags, the National Flag must be the highest. (iii) The flag is not to be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free; when carried in a procession it is to be brone high on the right shoulder of the standard bearer and carrried in front of the procession. (iv) The saffron stripe should always be at the top when the Flag is displayed from a staff projecting horizontally.

National Calendar : The national calendar is based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes:

(i) Gazette of India, (ii) news broadcast by All India Radio, (iii) calendars issued by the Government of India and (iv) Government communications addressed to the members of the public.


(1) Chaitra, (2) Vaishakha, (3) Jaishtha, (4) Ashadha, (5) Shravan, (6) Bhadra, (7) Ashvina, (8) Kartika, (9) Margashirsha, (10) Pausha, (11) Magha, (12) Phalguna.

Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar :

1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.

National Anthem:The song Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the national anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of  the National Anthem :

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he






Tava shubha name jage,

Tava shubha asisa mage,

Gahe tava jaya gatha,

Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he


Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,

Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version consisting of first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions.

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