Indian Economy : Some Important Terms

 

ARTIFICIAL CURRENCY

Artificial currency is the currency substitute, such as Special Drawing Rights (Sdrs) and European Currency Units (Ecus). An American Depositary Receipt (abbreviated ADR) represents ownership in the  shares of a non-U.S. company that trades in U.S. financial markets. The stock of many non-US companies trade on US stock exchanges through the use of ADRs. ADRs enable U.S. investors to buy shares in foreign companies without the hazards or inconveniences of cross-border & cross-currency transactions. ADRs carry prices in US dollars, pay dividends in US dollars, and can be traded like the shares of US-based companies. Each ADR is issued by a U.S. depositary bank and can represent a fraction of a share, a single share, or multiple shares of the foreign stock.

A Special Drawing Right (SDR) is the monetary unit of the reserve assets of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The unit was created in 1969 in support of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates to alleviate the shortage of U.S. dollar and gold reserves in the expansion of international trade. The SDR unit is defined as a weighted sum of contributions of four major currencies, reevaluated and adjusted every five years, and computed daily in terms of equivalent United States dollars. Special Drawing Rights are not a currency, but they represent potential claims on the currencies of the IMF members. SDRs obtain their reserve asset power from the commitments of the IMF member states to hold and honor them for payment of balances. The IMF uses SDRs for its monetary unit of  account. SDRs are denoted with the ISO 4217 currency code XDR.

A Global Depository Receipt or Global Depositary Receipt (GDR) is a certificate issued by a depository bank, which purchases shares of foreign companies and deposits it on the account. GDRs represent ownership of an underlying number of shares. Global Depository Receipts facilitate trade of shares, and are commonly used to invest in companies from developing or emerging market

STATUTORY LIQUIDITY RATIO(SLR)

Statutory Liquidity Ratio is the amount of liquid assets, such as cash, precious metals or other short-term securities, that a financial institution must maintain in its reserves. The objectives of SLR are:

To restrict the expansion of bank credit.

To augment the investment of the banks in Government securities.

To ensure solvency of banks. A reduction of SLR rates looks eminent to support the credit growth in India.

The SLR is commonly used to contain inflation and fuel growth, by increasing or decreasing it respectively. This counter acts by decreasing or increasing the money supply in the system respectively. Indian banks’ holdings of government securities (Government securities) are now close to the statutory minimum that banks are required to hold to comply with existing regulation. When measured in rupees, such holdings decreased for the first time in a little less than 40 years (since the nationalisation of banks in 1969) in 2005-06.

A great deal of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to India comes from Mauritius than from many major and mature economies like UK and France. Why India has comprehensive Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAA ) with 79 countries. This means that there are agreed rates of tax and jurisdiction on specified types of income arising in a country to a tax resident of another country. Under the Income Tax Act 1961 of India, there are two provisions, Section 90 and Section 91, which provide specific relief to taxpayers to save them from DTAA. Section 90 is for taxpayers who have paid the tax to a country with which India has signed DTAA, while Section 91 provides relief to tax payers who have paid tax to a country with which India has not signed a DTAA. Thus, India gives relief to both kind of taxpayers. A large number of foreign institutional investors who trade on the Indian stock markets operate from Mauritius. According to the tax treaty between India and Mauritius, capital gains arising from the sale of shares are taxable in the country of residence of the shareholder and not in the country of residence of the company whose shares have been sold. Therefore, a company resident in Mauritius selling shares of an Indian company will not pay tax in India. Since there is no capital gains tax in Mauritius, the gain will escape tax altogether.

ECONOMICAL TERMS MELTDOWN ,RECESSION,DEPRESSION SLOWDOWN

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction, a general slowdown in economic activity over a period of time. During recessions, many macroeconomic indicators vary in a similar way. Production as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment, investment spending, capacity utilization, household incomes, business profits and inflation all fall during recessions; while bankruptcies and the unemployment rate rise. 

In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe downturn than a recession, which is seen by economists as part of a normal business cycle.

Economic stagnation or economic immobilism, often called simply stagnation or immobilism, is a prolonged period of slow economic growth (traditionally measured in terms of the GDP growth). Under some definitions, “slow” means significantly slower than potential growth as estimated by experts in macroeconomics. Under other definitions, growth less than 2-3% per year is a sign of stagnation. The term bears negative connotations, but slow economic growth is not always the fault of economic policymakers. For example, potential growth may be slowed down by catastrophic or demographic reasons. Economic stagnation theories originated during the Great Depression and came to be associated with early Keynesian economics and Harvard University economics professor Alvin Hansen. In economics, the term stagflation refers to the situation when both the inflation rate and the unemployment rate are high. It is a difficult economic condition for a country, as both inflation and economic stagnation occur simultaneously and no macroeconomic policy can address both of these problems at the same time. Agflation, a term coined in the late 2000s, describes generalised inflation led by rises in Agricultural commodity prices. In the United States, agricultural prices are not generally factored into core inflation figures. The term describes a situation in which “external” (i.e.Agricultural) price rises drive up core inflation rates. It has been claimed that the term was invented by analysts at Merrill Lynch in early 2007.

In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, annual inflation is also an erosion in the purchasing power of money – a loss of real value in the internal medium of exchange and unit of account in the economy.

In economics, hyperinflation is inflation that is very high or “out of control”, a condition in which prices increase rapidly as a currency loses its value. Definitions used by the media vary from a cumulative inflation rate over three years approaching 100% to “inflation exceeding 50% a month.” In informal usage the term is often applied to much lower rates. As a rule of thumb, normal inflation is reported per year, but hyperinflation is often reported for much shorter intervals, often per month

TRADE MARK AND GEOGRAPHIC INDICATION

A trademark or trade mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual, business organization, or other legal entity to identify that the products or services to consumers with which the trademark appears originate from a unique source, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities. A trademark is designated by the following symbols: ™ (for an unregistered trade mark, that is, a mark used to promote or brand goods)

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